Rule 9.140. Appeal Proceedings in Criminal Cases
(a) Applicability. –Appeal proceedings in criminal cases shall be as in civil cases except as modified by this rule.
(b) Appeals by Defendant.
(1) Appeals Permitted. –A defendant may appeal
(A) a final judgment adjudicating guilt;
(B) a final order withholding adjudication after a finding of guilt;
(C) an order granting probation or community control, or both, whether or not guilt has been adjudicated;
(D) orders entered after final judgment or finding of guilt, including orders revoking or modifying probation or community control, or both, or orders denying relief under Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.800(a), 3.801, 3.850, 3.851, or 3.853;
(E) an unlawful or illegal sentence;
(F) a sentence, if the appeal is required or permitted by general law; or
(G) as otherwise provided by general law.
(2) Guilty or Nolo Contendere Pleas.
(A) Pleas. A defendant may not appeal from a guilty or nolo contendere plea except as follows:
(i) Reservation of Right to Appeal. A defendant who pleads guilty or nolo contendere may expressly reserve the right to appeal a prior dispositive order of the lower tribunal, identifying with particularity the point of law being reserved.
(ii) Appeals Otherwise Allowed. A defendant who pleads guilty or nolo contendere may otherwise directly appeal only
a. the lower tribunal’s lack of subject matter jurisdiction;
b. a violation of the plea agreement, if preserved by a motion to withdraw plea;
c. an involuntary plea, if preserved by a motion to withdraw plea;
d. a sentencing error, if preserved; or
e. as otherwise provided by law.
(i) Except for appeals under subdivision (b)(2)(A)(i) of this rule, the record for appeals involving a plea of guilty or nolo contendere shall be limited to:
a. all indictments, informations, affidavits of violation of probation or community control, and other charging documents;
b. the plea and sentencing hearing transcripts;
c. any written plea agreements;
d. any judgments, sentences, scoresheets, motions, and orders to correct or modify sentences, orders imposing, modifying, or revoking probation or community control, orders assessing costs, fees, fines, or restitution against the defendant, and any other documents relating to sentencing;
e. any motion to withdraw plea and order thereon;
f. notice of appeal, statement of judicial acts to be reviewed, directions to the clerk, and designation to the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist.
(ii) Upon good cause shown, the court, or the lower tribunal before the record is electronically transmitted, may expand the record.
(3) Commencement. –The defendant shall file the notice prescribed by rule 9.110(d) with the clerk of the lower tribunal at any time between rendition of a final judgment and 30 days following rendition of a written order imposing sentence. Copies shall be served on the state attorney and attorney general.
(4) Cross-Appeal. –A defendant may cross-appeal by serving a notice within 10 days of service of the state’s notice or service of an order on a motion pursuant to Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.800(b)(2). Review of cross-appeals before trial is limited to related issues resolved in the same order being appealed.
(c) Appeals by the State.
(1) Appeals Permitted. –The state may appeal an order
(A) dismissing an indictment or information or any count thereof or dismissing an affidavit charging the commission of a criminal offense, the violation of probation, the violation of community control, or the violation of any supervised correctional release;
(B) suppressing before trial confessions, admissions, or evidence obtained by search and seizure;
(C) granting a new trial;
(D) arresting judgment;
(E) granting a motion for judgment of acquittal after a jury verdict;
(F) discharging a defendant under Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.191;
(G) discharging a prisoner on habeas corpus;
(H) finding a defendant incompetent or insane;
(I) finding a defendant intellectually disabled under Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.203;
(J) granting relief under Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.801, 3.850, 3.851, or 3.853;
(K) ruling on a question of law if a convicted defendant appeals the judgment of conviction;
(L) withholding adjudication of guilt in violation of general law;
(M) imposing an unlawful or illegal sentence or imposing a sentence outside the range permitted by the sentencing guidelines;
(N) imposing a sentence outside the range recommended by the sentencing guidelines;
(O) denying restitution; or
(P) as otherwise provided by general law for final orders.
(2) Non-Final Orders. –The state as provided by general law may appeal to the circuit court non-final orders rendered in the county court.
(3) Commencement. –The state shall file the notice prescribed by rule 9.110(d) with the clerk of the lower tribunal within 15 days of rendition of the order to be reviewed; provided that in an appeal by the state under rule 9.140(c)(1)(K), the state’s notice of cross-appeal shall be filed within 10 days of service of defendant’s notice or service of an order on a motion pursuant to rule 3.800(b)(2). Copies shall be served on the defendant and the attorney of record. An appeal by the state shall stay further proceedings in the lower tribunal only by order of the lower tribunal.
(d) Withdrawal of Defense Counsel after Judgment and Sentence or after Appeal by State..
(1) The attorney of record for a defendant in a criminal proceeding shall not be relieved of any professional duties, or be permitted to withdraw as defense counsel of record, except with approval of the lower tribunal on good cause shown on written motion, until either the time has expired for filing an authorized notice of appeal and no such notice has been filed by the defendant or the state, or after the following have been completed:
(A) a notice of appeal or cross-appeal has been filed on behalf of the defendant or the state;
(B) a statement of judicial acts to be reviewed has been filed if a transcript will require the expenditure of public funds;
(C) the defendant’s directions to the clerk have been filed, if necessary;
(D) designations to the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist have been filed for transcripts of those portions of the proceedings necessary to support the issues on appeal or, if transcripts will require the expenditure of public funds for the defendant, of those portions of the proceedings necessary to support the statement of judicial acts to be reviewed; and
(E) in publicly funded defense and state appeals, when the lower tribunal has entered an order appointing the office of the public defender for the local circuit, the district office of criminal conflict and civil regional counsel, or private counsel as provided by chapter 27, Florida Statutes, that office, or attorney shall remain counsel for the appeal until the record is electronically transmitted to the appellate court. In publicly funded state appeals, defense counsel shall additionally file with the appellate court a copy of the lower tribunal’s order appointing the local public defender, the office of criminal conflict and civil regional counsel, or private counsel. In non-publicly funded defense and state appeals, retained appellate counsel shall file a notice of appearance in the appellate court, or defense counsel of record shall file a motion to withdraw in the appellate court, with service on the defendant, that states what the defendant’s legal representation on appeal, if any, is expected to be. Documents filed in the appellate court shall be served on the attorney general (or state attorney in appeals to the circuit court).
(2) Orders allowing withdrawal of counsel are conditional and counsel shall remain of record for the limited purpose of representing the defendant in the lower tribunal regarding any sentencing error the lower tribunal is authorized to address during the pendency of the direct appeal pursuant to Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.800(b)(2).
(e) Sentencing Errors. –A sentencing error may not be raised on appeal unless the alleged error has first been brought to the attention of the lower tribunal:
(1) at the time of sentencing; or
(2) by motion pursuant to Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.800(b).
(1) Service. –The clerk of the lower tribunal shall prepare and serve the record prescribed by rule 9.200 within 50 days of the filing of the notice of appeal. However, the clerk shall not serve the record until all proceedings designated for transcription have been transcribed by the court reporter(s) and filed with the clerk. If the designated transcripts have not been filed by the date required for service of the record, the clerk shall file with the appellate court, and serve on all parties and any court reporter whose transcript has not been filed, a notice of inability to complete the record, listing the transcripts not yet received. In cases where the transcripts are filed after a notice from the clerk, the clerk shall prepare and file the record within 20 days of receipt of the transcripts. An order granting an extension to the court reporter to transcribe designated proceedings shall toll the time for the clerk to serve this notice or the record on appeal.
(A) If a defendant’s designation of a transcript of proceedings requires expenditure of public funds, trial counsel for the defendant (in conjunction with appellate counsel, if possible) shall serve, within 10 days of filing the notice, a statement of judicial acts to be reviewed, and a designation to the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist requiring preparation of only so much of the proceedings as fairly supports the issue raised.
(B) Either party may file motions in the lower tribunal to reduce or expand the transcripts.
(C) Except as permitted in subdivision (f)(2)(D) of this rule, the parties shall designate the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist to file with the clerk of the lower tribunal the transcripts for the court and sufficient paper copies for all parties exempt from service by electronic mail as set forth in the Florida Rules of Judicial Administration.
(D) Non-indigent defendants represented by counsel may designate the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist to prepare the transcripts. Counsel adopting this procedure shall, within 5 days of receipt of the transcripts from the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist, file the transcripts. Counsel shall serve notice of the use of this procedure on the attorney general (or the state attorney in appeals to circuit court) and the clerk of the lower tribunal. Counsel shall attach a certificate to each transcript certifying that it is accurate and complete. When this procedure is used, the clerk of the lower tribunal upon conclusion of the appeal shall retain the transcript(s) for use as needed by the state in any collateral proceedings and shall not dispose of the transcripts without the consent of the Office of the Attorney General.
(E) In state appeals, the state shall designate the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist to prepare and file with the clerk of the lower tribunal the transcripts and sufficient copies for all parties exempt from service by e-mail as set forth in the Florida Rules of Judicial Administration. Alternatively, the state may elect to use the procedure specified in subdivision (f)(2)(D) of this rule.
(F) The lower tribunal may by administrative order in publicly-funded cases direct the clerk of the lower tribunal rather than the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist to prepare the necessary transcripts.
(3) Retention of Documents. –Unless otherwise ordered by the court, the clerk of the lower tribunal shall retain any original documents.
(4) Service of Copies. –The clerk of the lower tribunal shall serve copies of the record to the court, attorney general (or state attorney in appeals to circuit court), and all counsel appointed to represent indigent defendants on appeal. The clerk of the lower tribunal shall simultaneously serve copies of the index to all non-indigent defendants and, upon their request, copies of the record or portions thereof at the cost prescribed by law.
(5) Return of Record. –Except in death penalty cases, the court shall return the record to the lower tribunal after final disposition of the appeal.
(6) Supplemental Record for Motion to Correct Sentencing Error Pursuant to Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.800(b)(2)..
(A) The clerk of circuit court shall automatically supplement the appellate record with any motion pursuant to Florida Rule of Criminal Procedure 3.800(b)(2), any response, any resulting order, and any amended sentence. The clerk shall electronically transmit the supplement to the appellate court within 5 days of the filing of the order ruling on the motion. If an order is not filed within 60 days from the filing of the motion, this time shall run from the expiration of the 60 day period, and the clerk shall supplement the record with the motion and a statement that no order was timely filed.
(B) If any appellate counsel determines that a transcript of a proceeding relating to such a motion is required to review the sentencing issue, appellate counsel shall, within 5 days from the transmittal of the supplement described in subdivision (A), designate those portions of the proceedings not on file deemed necessary for transcription and inclusion in the record. A copy of the designation shall be filed with the appellate court. The procedure for this supplementation shall be in accordance with this subdivision, except that counsel is not required to file a revised statement of judicial acts to be reviewed, the approved court reporter or approved transcriptionist shall deliver the transcript within 15 days, and the clerk shall supplement the record with the transcript within 5 days of its receipt.
(g) Briefs. –Initial briefs shall be served within 30 days of service of the record or designation of appointed counsel, whichever is later. Additional briefs shall be served as prescribed by rule 9.210.
(h) Post-Trial Release.
(1) Appeal by Defendant. –The lower tribunal may hear a motion for post-trial release pending appeal before or after a notice is filed; provided that the defendant may not be released from custody until the notice is filed.
(2) Appeal by State. –An incarcerated defendant charged with a bailable offense shall on motion be released on the defendant’s own recognizance pending an appeal by the state, unless the lower tribunal for good cause stated in an order determines otherwise.
(3) Denial of Post-Trial Release. –All orders denying post-trial release shall set forth the factual basis on which the decision was made and the reasons therefor.
(4) Review. –Review of an order relating to post-trial release shall be by the court on motion.
(i) Scope of Review. –The court shall review all rulings and orders appearing in the record necessary to pass upon the grounds of an appeal. In the interest of justice, the court may grant any relief to which any party is entitled.